Determination of Fertility, Hatchability and Stage of Embryonic Death in Non-Hatching Eggs at Rubilizi National Hatchery


Abstract

Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate the major causes of mortality at different stages of incubation and their economic impact in response to sustainability challenges at the Rwandan National Hatchery.
Methods: The study evaluated the fertility, hatchability and embryonic deaths in broiler-producing flocks (B series) and layer-producing flocks (L series) at Rubilizi, a state-owned hatchery in Kigali, Rwanda.
Results: Mean fertility in the B series (94.23%) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the L series (93.24%). Mean hatchability in the B series (57.39%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the L series (42.2%). Early embryonic deaths in the L series (8.6%) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the B series (3.9%). Middle embryonic deaths in the L series (6.2%) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in the B series (1.8%). Late embryonic deaths in the L series (21.6%) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those encountered in the B series (13.0%). The occurrence of hatch debris in the L series (34.14%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in the B series (24.42%). There was no significant difference in the proportions of pips, rots and malformations/malpositions between the B and the L series (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: Low hatchability in the L series possibly resulted from the higher number of embryonic deaths and hatch debris and not from reduced fertility or cull chicks. Total chick losses during the study amounted to US$54 327.00. The hatchery was experiencing more losses in layers than in broilers as emanating from low hatchability of the layers. Further investigations are needed with aim to maximise the hatchery’s capacity.

Keywords

Embryo Loss; Congenital Abnormalities; Pips; Foot Rot; Germ Layers

Determination of Fertility, Hatchability and Stage of Embryonic Death in Non-Hatching Eggs at Rubilizi National Hatchery


Authors

Borden Mushonga

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, Pioneerspark, Windhoek, Namibia

Théophile Benimana

Affiliation: School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda, Rwanda

Erick Kandiwa

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, Pioneerspark, Windhoek, Namibia

Simbarashe Chinyoka

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, Pioneerspark, Windhoek, Namibia

Alaster Samkange

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, Pioneerspark, Windhoek, Namibia

Alec Bishi

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, Pioneerspark, Windhoek, Namibia

Gervais Habarugira

Affiliation: School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda, Rwanda

Determination of Fertility, Hatchability and Stage of Embryonic Death in Non-Hatching Eggs at Rubilizi National Hatchery


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Determination of Fertility, Hatchability and Stage of Embryonic Death in Non-Hatching Eggs at Rubilizi National Hatchery


Citation tools

Vancouver

Mushonga B, Benimana T, Kandiwa E, Chinyoka S, Samkange A, et al. Determination of Fertility, Hatchability and Stage of Embryonic Death in Non-Hatching Eggs at Rubilizi National Hatchery. Focus on Sciences. 2106; 3(3):1-6


APA

Mushonga, B., Benimana, T., Kandiwa, E., Chinyoka, S., Samkange, A., Bishi, A., & Habarugira, G. (2106). Determination of Fertility, Hatchability and Stage of Embryonic Death in Non-Hatching Eggs at Rubilizi National Hatchery. Focus on Sciences, 3(3), 1-6.


Chicago

Borden Mushonga, Théophile Benimana, Erick Kandiwa, Simbarashe Chinyoka, Alaster Samkange, Alec Bishi, and Gervais Habarugira "Determination of Fertility, Hatchability and Stage of Embryonic Death in Non-Hatching Eggs at Rubilizi National Hatchery". Focus on Sciences 3, no. 3 (2106).

Determination of Fertility, Hatchability and Stage of Embryonic Death in Non-Hatching Eggs at Rubilizi National Hatchery


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