Evidence of the Genotoxic Effect of Aloin on Earth Worms Eisenia Andrei


Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this work is to investigate the genotoxic effect and related gene expression in the worms Eisenia andrei exposed to four sublethal concentrations of aloin crude extracts (10, 50, 100 and 200 g/kg soils) for 7 and 14 days.
Methods: First, worm’s growth after the exposure periods was assessed. Micronucleus (MN) frequency in worm’s coelomocytes was evaluated for the potential genotoxic effect of aloin. The gene expressions regulations were evaluated with the genes involved in DNA repair: the P21 and topoisomerase, The Lysosomal/cytoplasm ratio was scored as general biomarker of cytotoxicity.
Results: Our results demonstrate a significant increase in the MN frequency along the aloin increasing concentrations associated with a significant reduction in worm’s growth. Similarly Lysosomal/Cytoplasm ration was highly affected by aloin particularly at higher concentrations and after 14 days of exposure. The gene expression pattern of P21 and Topoisomerase was markedly up-regulated as low concentrations and down–regulated at higher concentrations.
Conclusions: Our data should be particularly considered in view of the toxic effect of aloe vera wastes mainly at industrial level.

Keywords

SP-8203; Alloin; Genotoxicity

Evidence of the Genotoxic Effect of Aloin on Earth Worms Eisenia Andrei


Authors

Fatma Lanouar

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology, ISA Chott-Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia; Institut of Ecology and Environnemental Sciences, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Paris, France

Iteb Boughattas

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology, ISA Chott-Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia; Institut of Ecology and Environnemental Sciences, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Paris, France

Marouen Mkhinini

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology, ISA Chott-Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia

Noureddine Bousserhine

Affiliation: Bousserhine

Mohamed Banni

E-mail: [email protected]
Affiliation: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology, ISA Chott-Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia

Evidence of the Genotoxic Effect of Aloin on Earth Worms Eisenia Andrei


References

1. Brown JP, Dietrich PS. Mutagenicity of anthraquinone and benzanthrone derivatives in the Salmonella/microsome test: activation of anthraquinone glycosides by enzymic extracts of rat cecal bacteria. Mutat Res. 1979;66(1):9-24. DOI: 10.1016/0165-1218(79)90003-x PMID: 370585
2. Wamer WG, Vath P, Falvey DE. In vitro studies on the photobiological properties of aloe emodin and aloin A. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;34(2):233-42. DOI: 10.1016/s0891-5849(02)01242-x PMID: 12521605
3. Esmat AY, Tomasetto C, Rio MC. Cytotoxicity of a natural anthraquinone (Aloin) against human breast cancer cell lines with and without ErbB-2: topoisomerase IIalpha coamplification. Cancer Biol Ther. 2006;5(1):97-103. PMID: 16357514
4. Kambizi L, Sultana N, Afolayan AJ. Bioactive Compounds Isolated fromAloe ferox.: A Plant Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Pharmac Biol. 2008;42(8):636-9. DOI: 10.1080/13880200490902581
5. Tian B, Hua YJ. Concentration-dependence of prooxidant and antioxidant effects of aloin and aloe-emodin on DNA. Food Chem. 2005;91(3):413-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.06.018
6. Hattab S, Boughattas I, Boussetta H, Viarengo A, Banni M, Sforzini S. Transcriptional expression levels and biochemical markers of oxidative stress in the earthworm Eisenia andrei after exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2015;122:76-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.07.014 PMID: 26210610
7. Sforzini S, Boeri M, Dagnino A, Oliveri L, Bolognesi C, Viarengo A. Genotoxicity assessment in Eisenia andrei coelomocytes: a study of the induction of DNA damage and micronuclei in earthworms exposed to B[a]P- and TCDD-spiked soils. Mutat Res. 2012;746(1):35-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2012.02.011 PMID: 22459015
8. Koch A. Metabolism of aloin--the influence of nutrition. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1996;14(8-10):1335-8. PMID: 8818052
9. Klaassen C, Rozman K. Absorption, distribution and excretion of toxicants. In: Amdur MO, Doull J, Klaassen C, editors. Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 4th ed. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1991. p. 50–87.
10. Nebert DW, Gonzalez FJ. P450 genes: structure, evolution, and regulation. Annu Rev Biochem. 1987;56:945-93. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.bi.56.070187.004501 PMID: 3304150
11. Sforzini S, Moore MN, Boeri M, Bencivenga M, Viarengo A. Effects of PAHs and dioxins on the earthworm Eisenia andrei: a multivariate approach for biomarker interpretation. Environ Pollut. 2015;196:60-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.09.015 PMID: 25305466
12. OECD. Guideline for Testing of Chemicals, no 222, Earthworm Reproduction Test (Eisenia fetida/andrei). Paris, France: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2004.
13. Ahlawat KS, Khatkar BS. Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review. J Food Sci Technol. 2011;48(5):525-33. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0229-z PMID: 23572784
14. Bouché MB. Lombriciens de France: écologie et systématique. INRA. 1972;72(2).
15. Eyambe GS, Goven AJ, Fitzpatrick LC, Venables BJ, Cooper EL. A non-invasive technique for sequential collection of earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) leukocytes during subchronic immunotoxicity studies. Lab Anim. 1991;25(1):61-7. DOI: 10.1258/002367791780808095 PMID: 2010977
16. Fugere N, Brousseau P, Krzystyniak K, Coderre D, Fournier M. Heavy metal-specific inhibition of phagocytosis and different in vitro sensitivity of heterogeneous coelomocytes from Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta). Toxicology. 1996;109(2-3):157-66. PMID: 8658546
17. Chomczynski P, Sacchi N. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on. Nat Protoc. 2006;1(2):581-5. DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2006.83 PMID: 17406285
18. Banni M, Negri A, Rebelo M, Rapallo F, Boussetta H, Viarengo A, et al. Expression analysis of the molluscan p53 protein family mRNA in mussels (Mytilus spp.) exposed to organic contaminants. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;149(3):414-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2008.09.017 PMID: 18973830
19. Negri A, Oliveri C, Sforzini S, Mignione F, Viarengo A, Banni M. Transcriptional response of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) following exposure to heat stress and copper. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e66802. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066802 PMID: 23825565
20. Tsyusko OV, Hardas SS, Shoults-Wilson WA, Starnes CP, Joice G, Butterfield DA, et al. Short-term molecular-level effects of silver nanoparticle exposure on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Environ Pollut. 2012;171:249-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.08.003 PMID: 22960366
21. Pfaffl MW, Horgan GW, Dempfle L. Relative expression software tool (REST) for group-wise comparison and statistical analysis of relative expression results in real-time PCR. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30(9):e36. PMID: 11972351
22. Vandesompele J, De Preter K, Pattyn F, Poppe B, Van Roy N, De Paepe A, et al. Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RTPCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biol. 2002;3(7):RESEARCH0034. PMID: 12184808
23. Banni M, Bouraoui Z, Clerandeau C, Narbonne JF, Boussetta H. Mixture toxicity assessment of cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene in the sea worm Hediste diversicolor. Chemosphere. 2009;77(7):902-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.08.041 PMID: 19758679
24. Gastaldi L, Ranzato E, Capri F, Hankard P, Peres G, Canesi L, et al. Application of a biomarker battery for the evaluation of the sublethal effects of pollutants in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;146(3):398-405. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2007.04.014 PMID: 17567537
25. Viarengo A, Lowe D, Bolognesi C, Fabbri E, Koehler A. The use of biomarkers in biomonitoring: a 2-tier approach assessing the level of pollutant-induced stress syndrome in sentinel organisms. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;146(3):281-300. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2007.04.011 PMID: 17560835
26. Lourenco JI, Pereira RO, Silva AC, Morgado JM, Carvalho FP, Oliveira JM, et al. Genotoxic endpoints in the earthworms sub-lethal assay to evaluate natural soils contaminated by metals and radionuclides. J Hazard Mater. 2011;186(1):788-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.073 PMID: 21146299
27. Boughattas I, Hattab S, Boussetta H, Banni M, Navarro E. Impact of heavy metal contamination on oxidative stress of Eisenia andrei and bacterial community structure in Tunisian mine soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24(22):18083-95. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9449-8 PMID: 28624946
28. Moore MN, Kohler A, Lowe D, Viarengo A. Lysosomes and autophagy in aquatic animals. Methods Enzymol. 2008;451:581-620. DOI:10.1016/S0076-6879(08)03233-3 PMID: 19185741
29. Guo X, Mei N. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2016;34(2):77-96. DOI: 10.1080/10590501.2016.1166826 PMID: 26986231
30. Brown JP, Dietrich PS, Brown RJ. Frameshift mutagenicity of certain naturally occurring phenolic compounds in the ‘Salmonella/microsome’ test: activation of anthraquinone and flavonol glycosides by gut bacterial enzymes [proceedings]. Biochem Soc Trans. 1977;5(5):1489-92. PMID: 336434
31. Westendorf J, Marquardt H, Poginsky B, Dominiak M, Schmidt J, Marquardt H. Genotoxicity of naturally occurring hydroxyanthraquinones. Mutat Res. 1990;240(1):1-12. PMID: 2294411
32. Nesslany F, Simar-Meintieres S, Ficheux H, Marzin D. Aloe-emodin-induced DNA fragmentation in the mouse in vivo comet assay. Mutat Res. 2009;678(1):13-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2009.06.004 PMID: 19559101
33. Barillet S, Buet A, Adam C, Devaux A. Does uranium exposure induce genotoxicity in the teleostean Danio rerio? First experimental results. Radioprotect. 2005;40:S175-S81. DOI: 10.1051/radiopro: 2005s1-028
34. Hertel-Aas T, Oughton DH, Jaworska A, Brunborg G. Induction and repair of DNA strand breaks and oxidised bases in somatic and spermatogenic cells from the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to ionising radiation. Mutagenesis. 2011;26(6):783-93. DOI: 10.1093/mutage/ger048 PMID: 21825113
35. Mohanty S, Town T, Yagi T, Scheidig C, Kwan KY, Allore HG, et al. Defective p53 engagement after the induction of DNA damage in cells deficient in topoisomerase 3beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(13):5063-8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0801235105 PMID: 18367668
36. Wang Y, Lyu YL, Wang JC. Dual localization of human DNA topoisomerase IIIalpha to mitochondria and nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(19):12114-9. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.192449499 PMID: 12209014

Evidence of the Genotoxic Effect of Aloin on Earth Worms Eisenia Andrei


Citation tools

Vancouver

Lanouar F, Boughattas I, Mkhinini M, Bousserhine N, Banni M. Evidence of the Genotoxic Effect of Aloin on Earth Worms Eisenia Andrei. Focus on Sciences. 2106; 3(4):1-6


APA

Lanouar, F., Boughattas, I., Mkhinini, M., Bousserhine, N., & Banni, M. (2106). Evidence of the Genotoxic Effect of Aloin on Earth Worms Eisenia Andrei. Focus on Sciences, 3(4), 1-6.


Chicago

Fatma Lanouar, Iteb Boughattas, Marouen Mkhinini, Noureddine Bousserhine, and Mohamed Banni "Evidence of the Genotoxic Effect of Aloin on Earth Worms Eisenia Andrei". Focus on Sciences 3, no. 4 (2106).

Evidence of the Genotoxic Effect of Aloin on Earth Worms Eisenia Andrei


Share this article

To share this article click on each icone.